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Photoelastic light modulators
Photoelastic modulators (PEMs) are a key component across a diverse range of photonic applications. PEMs change the polarisation state of a light beam at frequencies between 20 and 100 kHz. The photoelastic effect is used to change the birefringence of the optical element in the photoelastic modulator. The following includes applications where PEM components and systems are widely used to solve complex and demanding optical polarisation measurement challenges:
- Polarisation measurement - astronomical polarisation, birefringence, dichroism, attenuation, ellipsometry, extinction ratio, Faraday rotation, fluorescence, optical chopping, Kerr constant, magneto-optic Kerr effect, PM IRRAS, and polarisation extinction
- Ratio, polarisation scrambling, reflection difference/ anisotropy spectroscopy, rheology, scattering media, stress measurement
- Optical lithography (DUV bi-refringence)
- Lens measurement (discrete optic curved surfaces)
- Thin Films (Birefringence Measurement, MOKE, PM-IRRAS)
- Fibre/ laser crystals/ optical metrology (extinction ratio, polarisation extinction ratio, S. polarimetry, waveplate measurement, SOP/ DOP)
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